But constructive activity may extend beyond the action itself and can be facilitated by reflective and retrospective analyzes of the activity, such as we have established in this research.

Questions arising teacher How he manages to handle these two forms of labor that are interconnected? Indeed, previous observations have allowed us to identify four main activities of students in the board: – Identify a problem – Propose a penalty, a project, a solution, a rule – Vote, How to choose the teacher will t he support problem identification to extract a concept and make it a learning object and reflection, a concern of the class?

How to build links between those moments, how to enroll in the history of the class, conceptualize? What tools teacher he has to do? Does A need training on this? What is the development of the teacher about it? Two goals -A research objective -A training objective: confrontation of a teacher-trainer and a novice teacher around the same class sequences: how to transmit the experience?

What training elements are built in this interaction? 2. Device for collaborative research between teachers and researcher The research is based on a collaborative analysis of class sessions. The device is as follows: -Setting up of the session is filmed. Eight cooperative counseling sessions were filmed in a double level class CM1 / CM2 for two consecutive years (2008-2009 and 2009-2010). -Reproduction the film in three copies, one for each team member, who view it individually.

Collective -Visualization film one to three weeks after the completion of the session. The operating instructions and data set is as follows: Locate moments that seem important to report at student work within the cooperative councils. -Each member of the group involved in the following way: -L’enseignant that made the session commented first its activity and activity of students according to the setpoint. -L’enseignant-trainer made his comments later, by providing additional elements to problematize the session. -The researcher mainly intervenes to clarify or deepen the remarks expressed, reformulate or seek clarification with the methodology of a clinical questioning.

3. Issues of the board, instead of problematization Two issues observed in the identification of a problem brought by the students: -To pass the problem to its solution needs a reflection, debate, analysis. -To understand the significance of this problem, we need to detach from the specific context of the situation and build links with other situations in the classroom or outside the classroom, conceptualize. 1st situation The constitution football teams Analysis of the situation concerning the constitution of football teams.

Students encounter a problem in the constitution of the teams during break, so in the school council a proposal was made to a table where students will enroll in the morning when they arrive. But there are students who find that the realization of this idea will be difficult (see excerpts).

Development of the situation by the problematisation The intervention of the trainer-teacher wants the group to perceive the work that the student must perform to understand the significance of this, and instead of this understanding in its development (see excerpt) . Three dimensions of this conceptual work are addressed: -The jump decentration needed by the student to transform its operational schemes (operation) regarding the functioning of a team. -L’utilite conceptualization of the notion of equity for the student to other situations while stressing in passing that this conceptualization is all the more difficult it is to break with the social reality . -The importance for the student to integrate this principle to act independently without the need for arbitration in adults. 2nd position: Respect the collective material Thread Analysis done in class around an action criticized by a student: he saw someone in the class to throw the toilet paper roll through the window.

The speech of students is rather prescriptive and is within the judgment and justification. There is no trace of explanation (why do we tend to do that?) Or conceptual analysis (what does that mean “respect the collective material”?). The problem is analyzed according to its consequences ( “there will be toilet paper”) while the concept of collective material just end the discussion: it is not good to destroy the collective material because it belongs to everyone (see excerpts).

Development of the situation by the problematization: emphasize the point of view of the actor’s intervention teacher-trainer is the problem in another level of reflection: instead of insisting on the consequences, adopting a speech normative interests little students actually can put the problem of the actor’s point of view to help him reflect on his actions and on the values ??that the rally. Two questions arise in this connection: -What do my homework
did I not doing? -What fact that in other situations it can be done (using the example of the visual arts)?

These two issues together contribute to the construction of the notion of “collective” central concept of the situation. Thus, the status of the notion of “collective material” changes: a prescription tool, integrated in a rule (we must respect the collective material) becomes an object of reflection, a didactic purpose, as well as for students for the teacher.

3. Some frameworks to better analyze the work in the board’s distinction between productive activity and constructive activity initiated by Marx and adopted by Rabardel and Samurcay (2004) and Pastre (2007). Productive activity is to transform the real, it is real hardware, social or symbolic; constructive activity is to transform oneself, transforming the real, by building skills and experience.

Two points to note. -First, in productive activity, the activity stops with the end of the action, be it a success or a failure. But constructive activity may extend beyond the action itself and can be facilitated by reflective and retrospective analyzes of the activity, such as we have established in this research. -Second, thanks to the constructive activity that the activity is not limited to treating the uniqueness of a situation by a desingularization movement, the subject will be able to register the productive activity in a wider field concepts and situations, to identify patterns, structures, possible changes in relation to other life situations.

Problematization. As part of the constructive activity, problematisation operation plays an important role, as defined by Orange explicit construction of a problem (Orange 2007). Problematize a situation implies to build a questioning that included this situation in a given frame of reference. This problematization is important in two stages. It is important in the classroom since it is from his questioning that the teacher will guide student thinking.

It is important in a second time for teacher training, to analyze what happened in the classroom. The distinction between the moral spheres, legal and political: -The moral sphere the relationship between individual / collective or public / private through the work: from a personal concern when the collective interests of the class? Why I obey a rule set collectively even if I do not agree with it?

How do I become a critical observer of my environment by promoting, in my actions and choices, the value of cooperation? -The legal sphere concerns the contextualization and generalization of rights and duties: -Rights / homework: Is to allow an action to someone (eg change positions) must set a rule? How a rule has exceptions? What are the limits of these exceptions? -Justice: what is a just punishment?

How to place a personal offense to malfunction? Why should not judge someone when he is absent? -The political sphere regarding the permanence and / or changing class institutions -Exercise a responsibility: How to protect those responsible for the abuse of power? -Vote: what is the voting and under what conditions a voting decision is legitimate? How to place a board to another (from one class to the school etc.)?

Discussion about some -Alterner time for action and time for reflection tensions.

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